GENERAL OBJECTIVES:

- We want what students learn at Parinima academy to be either foundational or supplemental education to ensure the best performance in school or on standardized tests
- We want to focus on
*learning*not*knowing.*Knowledge is a dynamic process that lies beyond being able to record information or remember facts. When a student begins to learn complex material, they will find that a shallow memorization is not sufficient in order to grasp concepts. A successful student is one who can explain, relate to, and apply the material they’ve been taught rather than only remembering it, which is considered the bare minimum. A good philosophy to maintain, particularly in math, is that if a student gets an answer right, but cannot elaborate on their methodology or the underlying concepts that enabled them to reach their answer, it is just as unhelpful to their education as getting it wrong. - Develop a positive attitude and healthy curiosity towards learning, supported by effective curricula that pique interest and is perceived as significant. Additionally, we would like the student to develop academic fortitude when approaching challenges, and be eager to do so.

PRE ALGEBRA

Overall goal:

pre-Algebra the beautiful starting point of mathematical modeling and problem solving. From this point on, *everything* the student learns will contribute to their understand of Calculus at various higher levels. These classes ought to be taken in high school and often presents a challenge to students who don’t possess a solid mathematical foundation. Throughout algebra and calculus, the concepts are remarkably interconnected. Thus, to not lose the ability to facilitate authentic understanding of the material, our effort will be concentrated on maintaining the connections between each topic in order to build a dynamic web understanding of mathematics.

- Number theory
- factors/ multiples
- Distributive property
- Order of operations
- Least and Greatest Common factor
- Fractions
- Practice problems to build towards Graphing lines and solving Linear Equations
- Quick tips: keep change flip

- Quick tips: what this number is divisible by
- More strange signs
- Exponents
- Distribution, addition
- Negative exponents

- Radicals
- Learn square and cubed root

- Exponents

- Graphing
- Coordinate planes
- Input output tables
- Linear graphing

- Linear equations (no more than multiplication, division, addition, subtraction)
- Pemdas review
- Solving methodology
- Using shapes with unknown side values. Perimeters, area, etc.

- Graphing
- Quick tips: x and y intercepts, modeling

- Basic geometry
- Triangles
- Right, isosceles, scalene
- Interior angles
- Relationships between triangles, i.e. ratio

- Quadrilaterals
- Identification, e.g. square versus rectangle

- Parallel lines with transverse lines
- Alternate interior v. exterior
- Algebra problems dealing with this

- Triangles

MATH OLYMPIAD

This is a rigorous competitive math competition that exists nationally. See website for teams near you or to charter your team https://www.moems.org/

The strategy for this is to use official moem books to train the children.

- Start by working on one question at a time. Time their progress to get a feel for their speed, let them work as long as they wish, do not stop them if they run out of time. It is important that they learn to do math first and then improve their speed later. Moem books will indicate the suggested time it takes to complete the given problem. Keep in mind that more difficult problems (i.e. the ones with a low percentage of correct answers) will naturally take longer to complete, so it is natural if the student works past the time suggestion.

- Gradually work towards stopping them when their time is up. This is when speed should become a priority. Developing strategies to decrease time is vital, so encourage the student to identify tools that they can utilize to decrease time:
- Identifying when a strategy is not useful
- It’s too repetitive
- It’s impossible or inefficient to complete it in the allotted time
- The student is not sure or uncomfortable with their understanding of the mathematics behind the strategy they’re employing

- Identifying when a strategy is not useful

On getting the correct answer:

It is imperative for the students to learn to able to logic their way through their answers. Always begin by asking them to explain themselves- if they can’t, they’re doing a bad job.

Afterwards, let them know if they’ve reached the correct answer. If they have, let them know the things that they’ve done well. If they haven’t, walk them through the strategies one may employ when being addressed with the question (this is up to the tutor). Make sure to lead them to the correct answer.

DEBATE

Speech and debate, also known as forensics, is a competitive activity offered in many high schools. There are some basic foundations of argumentation that are important to know.

How to generate an argument:

When face with a topic, immediately start to imagine a world in which the topic is true. Think about social, political, and personal effects this topic may have on others. If you find a problem with this hypothetical world, then you’ve found a potential argument against the topic.

Each argument contains three unique parts:

- Claim

- This is your main statement that dictates what you want to convince others of. Without this, there is no substance to your argument. You must take a solid, definitive stance about the topic. This could be “xyz is bad”

- Warrant
- Warrants are the logic and/or evidence you use to support your claim. Just because you have stated something does not meant that it must automatically be considered true, even if it’s obvious. Use evidence to support your argument. In many debate formats, this looks like using news articles or published papers to present information in favor of your proposition. When searching for these articles, look for articles that:
- Give examples of what has historically occurred in relation to your topic
- Predicts what could happen in the future as a result of your topic
- Explains a concept or method of rationalizing things that is relevant to the debate.

- Warrants don’t always have to be articles, however. Warrants can be empirical. Empirical warrants are based on logic, in which you explain why it is likely for your argument to be true. When generating empirical warrants remember to think about:
- What the people you are discussing would be incentivized to do. This is how you convince judges that people are likely to behave in a certain way
- Connect facts together to create a chain of likelihood
- Be clear and deliberate
- Provide hypothetical situations

- Warrants are the logic and/or evidence you use to support your claim. Just because you have stated something does not meant that it must automatically be considered true, even if it’s obvious. Use evidence to support your argument. In many debate formats, this looks like using news articles or published papers to present information in favor of your proposition. When searching for these articles, look for articles that:

Impact

- The impact is the significance of your argument. If you claim something is bad, there is no value to your claim unless you explain what “badness” as a concept is, and why it’s undesirable in this situation. You must explain how your argument affects the discussion as a whole. When thinking of impacts think of:
- Harms to individuals
- Harms to the environment
- Potential conflicts
- Economic stability
- Morality
- Ethics
- Timeliness